Glossary of Terms
Abdominal - Pertaining to the abdomin, i.e. the part of the body containing the stomache, intestines etc.
Abscess - A localised collection of pus formed as the product of inflammation and usually caused by bacteria.
Absorption - The uptake of substances by tissues, such as nutrients through the wall of the intestine.
Acuity - The sharpness or keenness of sensory perception, as in sharp vision or keen hearing.
Acute - In relation to disease meaning brief and severe: The opposite of chronic.
Acute Pain - Refers to a type of pain that is usually temporary, i.e. sharp, throbbing, aching, or burning sensation as a result from something specific such as surgery, injury or infection.
Adaptation - A set of characteristics of an individual developed from it's interactions with its environment that contributes to the individuals survival.
Aerophagia - When large amounts of air is swallowed; can cause bloating and stomach pain.
Aestivation - Slowing of activity during the summer; especially slowing of metabolism and breathing rates in some animals during a hot or dry period.
Aggression - Behaviour that is related to conflict between individuals; includes both threats and attacks.
Agonistic Behaviour - Any form of behaviour associated with aggression, including threat, attack, appeasement, or flight. It is often associated with defence of a territory; for example, a threat display by the defending individual is often met with an appeasement display from the intruder, thus avoiding harmful conflict.
Amino Acid - A chemical compound that forms the basic building block of proteins.
Amphibian - A class of ectothermic animals that spends at least part of their life cycle living in water. This includes: anurans, salamanders and caecilians.
Animal Welfare - Human efforts to reduce and prevent pain and suffering and promote well-being in animals.
Anorexia - An eating disorder characterized by markedly reduced appetite or total aversion to food.
Aquatic - An animal that lives in water.
Arboreal - An animal that lives amongst trees.
Asphyxiation - A severe lack of oxygen resulting from inability to breathe.
Autotomy - The self amputation of an appendage.
Avidin - A biotin binding protein produced in the oviducts of birds, reptiles and amphibians which is deposited in the whites of their eggs.
Bacteria - The plural of the word Bacterium. - A very large group of micro-organisms. (See Bacerium).
Bacterium - A microscopic, single-celled organism that may cause disease or may be a harmless, or even helpful, part of an animal's normal internal or external environment.
Basking - A behaviour expressed by ectothermic animals whereby the animal exposes itself to warmth, especially that of the sun, in order to raise its body temperature.
Beta-carotene - A precursor to vitamin A.
Blister - A fluid-filled bump on the skin.
Bloat - A medical condition in which the stomach becomes overstretched by excessive gas content.
Bloodstream - The flow of blood through the circulatory system of an organism.
Boid Snakes - Members of the Boidae family; Boa Constrictors.
Bone Matrix - The intercellular substance of bone tissue consisting of collagen fibres and inorganic bone salts.
Breeding - Sexual reproduction of animals, either spontaneously or planned and supervised by human beings.
Browse - Young twigs, leaves, shoots and other soft vegitation that are fit for animal consumption.
Browser - An animal which will feed on browse matter.
Brumation - A reptilian equivalent of hibernation. See Hibernation.
Calcification - The abnormal deposition of calcium in its insoluable form into the tissues of an animal. Over calcification can cause a hardening of the soft tissues such as the linning of the arteries leading to organ failure.
Capture Myopathy - Occures in wild animals and is the result of extreme stress from being captured and/or restrained; stress hormone levels become so high they degrade the muscles. Capture myopathy usually results in a painful death to the animal due to excessive lactic acid build up. See Myopathy.
Carapace - The dorsal (upper) section of the shell of a chelonian.
Cardiac - Pertaining to the heart.
Cardiomyopathy - Any disease of the heart muscle leading to decreased function.
Cardiovascular System - The body system that consists of the heart and the blood vessels (veins and arteries).
Carnivore - An animal which feeds chiefly on other animals or insects.
CB - Captive Bred: An animal bred in captivity, possibly from wild caught parents, but generally in the country of final purchase.
Cell Differentiation - The process by which less specialised cells becomes a more specialised cell type.
CF - Captive Farmed: An animal bred on a 'farm', generally in its native country but born into captivity.
Chelonian - A family of animals which includes turtles, terrapins and tortoises.
Chemosensory - Pertaining to the sensing of chemicals, as by olfaction (the sense of smell).
Chronic - Meaning long term, for instance: having suffered from disease over a long period of time.
Chronic Pain - Pain that persists over a long period of time; for longer than the expected time frame for healing. Can be associated with progressive, noncancerous disease, such as osteoarthritis.
Ciliary - Refers to the cilia which are minute hair like organelles that line the surfaces of certain cells to allow the cell to locomote via rhythmic waves of movement.
CITES - Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, international legislation that regulates and monitors trade in wildlife.
Classical Conditioning - A method of learning that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.
Cloaca - The posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, reproductive, and urinary tracts of certain animal species.
Collagen - The main supportive protein of cartilage, connective tissue, tendon, skin, and bone. Serves as connecting tissue between cells.
Colic - A form of pain which starts and stops abruptly.
Cones - A type of photoreceptor in the eye responsible for sharp vision and the ability to see in colour.
Congenital - Of or pertaining to a condition present at birth, whether inherited or caused by the environment, especially the uterine environment.
Conjunctivitis - Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the inside of the eyelid.
Conspecific - A member of the same species.
Contagious - Describes a condition that can spread from one organism to another.
Contaminated - Unclean or polluted because of contact with harmful substances.
Coprophagy - The eating of dung, or feaces. A behaviour usually performed to process undigested material again or to better establish the flora of the gut.
Cornea - The transparent outer part of the eye that covers the iris and pupil and admits light into the eyeball.
Cortisol - A stress hormone released by the adrenal gland wich is also responsible for regulating carbohydrate metabolism and maintaining blood pressure.
Caudal - Another term for posterior, e.g. Caudal Autonomy; Self amputation of a posterior apendage, i.e. the tail.
Crepuscular - Primarily active during 'twilight' hours (sunrise and sunset).
Cutaneous - Of or relating to the skin.
Cyst - A closed, fluid-filled growth in otherwise normal tissue.
Debilitated - Having greatly decreased energy and strength.
Deficiency - Lacking the correct level of nutrients.
Degeneration - A condition that causes a gradual deterioration in the structure or function of a body part.
Dehydration - A lack of sufficient water within the body.
Dermal - Pertaining to the skin.
Dewlap - A longitudinal flap of skin that hangs beneath the lower jaw or neck.
Digestion - The process by which an animal processes food and absorbs nutrients.
Distention - Swollen or expanded, as by pressure from within, such as abdominal swelling.
Diurnal - Active during the daytime rather than at night.
Duct - Any tube or pipe by which fluid or other substances are conveyed, e.g. tear ducts.
Dysecdysis - Abnormal shedding of the skin of reptiles, usually due to under-nutrition or too cold or too dry an environment.
Ecdysis - The shedding of an outer layer of skin.
Ectoparasite - A parasite that lives on its host's skin or between the scales, such as mites and ticks.
Ectotherm - An animal who's body temperature is determined by its surrounding environment.
Egg Binding - A condition in birds and reptiles in which the female is unable to lay a developed or partially developed egg.
Elimination - To get rid of, i.e. some reptiles will empty their bowels when threatened.
Emaciation - To become extremely thin, especially as a result of starvation.
Embryo - An organism in its early stages of development, especially before it has reached a distinctively recognisable form.
Endoparasite - A parasite that lives inside its host, such as a heart-worm.
Endotherm - An animal who's body temperature is altered internally.
Enzyme - A protein that speeds up a biological process such as digestion.
Epithelial - Having to do with the skin (epithelium).
Euthanasia - The deliberate, painless killing of an incurably ill or injured animal; also called putting to sleep or putting down.
Exposure - Contact with or proximity to some environmental condition, toxin, or infectious agent.
Faeces - The solid waste expelled from the bowels of an animal.
Fatty Acid - One of the major components of fat, used by the body to supply energy and build tissues.
Femur - The large bone of the upper hind limb; also known as the thigh bone.
Fertility - The ability to produce viable eggs or sufficient sperm to propagate offspring; infertility results in non-viable eggs and insufficient sperm.
Fibrous Osteodystrophy - Generalised loss of mineral salts throughout the skeleton due to an increased rate of bone destruction resulting from hyperparathyroidism (excess parathyroid hormone secretion).
Fibrous Tissue - Tissue consisting primarily of high-strength fibres, such as ligaments and tendons.
Folivore - An animal which feeds chiefly on leaves.
Fossorial - Describes an animal that had adapted to digging and life underground, such as the Mole Salamander (Ambystoma sp.).
Fracture - A break as caused by external stresses.
Fungal - Caused by, or related to a fungus.
Fungus - A classification of organisms that cannot gain energy from sunlight, as plants can; some cause infections in animals and people.
Gastrointestinal - Having to do with the stomach and intestines.
Genetic - Having to do with genes or heredity.
Goitre - An enlarged thyroid, often caused by iodine deficiency.
Goitrogen - A chemical substance found in some plants, especially cabbage, cauliflower, kale, rape, swede, turnip, brussels sprouts, and broccoli, which supress thyroid function and interfere with the uptake of iodine causing goitre.
Gout - A metabolic disease characterised by painful inflammation of certain joints, caused by deposits of sodium urate.
Gravid - A term used to describe pregnancy in reptiles.
Gregarious - Seeking and enjoying the company of others; sociable.
Gut-loading - The process by which an animal's prey is raised and fed nutritious foods with the intention of passing those nutrients to the animal for which the prey is intended.
Hatchling - A young animal that has newly emerged from an egg.
Heart Disease - Any structural or functional abnormality of the heart that impairs its normal functioning.
Heart Failure - Any heart abnormality that results in failure of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
Heat Exhaustion - A condition caused by overexertion in high temperatures or overexposure to the sun.
Heat Stroke - A collapse brought on by prolonged periods of heat stress or heat exhaustion. Signs include cessation of sweating or panting, extremely high body temperature, and unconsciousness.
Heliotherm - An animal which absorb heat from above, i.e. directly from the sun.
Herbivore - An animal which feeds chiefly on plant material.
Hereditary - Transmitted genetically from parent to offspring.
Herptile - A word which collectively refers to both reptiles and amphibians.
Herpetological - See Herpetology.
Herpetology - The study of reptiles and amphibians.
Hibernation - A state of inactivity and metabolic depression in animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rate.
Hormone - A compound produced by a gland in the body that stimulates other parts of the body and controls their activity.
Human-animal Bond - The emotional relationship existing between humans and companion animals.
Husbandry - The practice of raising and taking care of animals.
Hydration - The process of providing an adequate amount of fluids to body tissues.
Hydroregulation - An animals ability to regulate its own hydration levels.
Hygiene - Actions taken to maintain cleanliness and health.
Hypercalcaemia - Abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood, characterised by weakness, nausea, confusion, and lethargy.
Hyperextension - When a part of the body is placed in an exaggerated extended position such as if one were to bend a joint backwards.
Hyperparathyroidism - A condition caused by the excessive secretion of the parathyroid hormone.
Hypersalivate - Excessive salivation or drooling.
Hypertension - A disease of the arteries which causes elevated blood pressure.
Hyperthyroidism - A condition caused by the excessive secretion of the thyroid hormone.
Hypervitaminosis - Refers to the effects of excessive vitamin intake.
Hypocalcaemia - Abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood characterised primarily by weakening of the bones.
Hypoparathyroidism - A condition caused by the a diminishing or absense of the secretion of the parathyroid hormone.
Hypothyroidism - A condition caused by the a diminishing or absense of the secretion of the thyroid hormone.
Hypovitaminosis - Refers to the effects of deficient vitamin intake.
Immune System - The system within an animal that recognises an infectious agent or other foreign body and engages an immune response. The immune system includes various organs, such as the thymus gland, spleen, and lymph nodes, as well as specialised cells found throughout the body.
Immunosuppression - Involves an act that reduces the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Incubation - The maintenance of an infant, especially a premature infant (egg), in an environment of controlled temperature, humidity, and oxygen concentration in order to provide optimal conditions for growth and development.
Infection - A disorder that occurs when microorganisms invade the body and multiply. Infectious microorganisms include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
Infectious - A condition that is passed from animal to animal by a virus, bacterium, or other agent.
Infestation - The act of infesting or state of being infested. (e.g. mite infestation of a vivarium).
Inflammation - A localised protective response to injury or other tissue damage. The response includes increased blood flow in the surrounding capillaries (causing redness), swelling, increased temperature in the area, and pain.
Insectivore - An animal which feeds chiefly on insects.
Intestine - The part of the digestive tract between the stomach and the anus, divided into the small intestine and the large intestine.
Ischaemia - Inadequate blood supply to localised tissues as a result of a blockage, necrosis of the tissues results.
Isolation - The process of keeping diseased or potentially diseased animals separate from other susceptible animals. (See also Quarentine).
Jacobson's Organ - See Vomeronasal Organ.
Joint - The site where two or more bones meet. Joints may be movable or immovable.
Juvenile - A young animal.
Keratin - The hard protein that makes up hair, fingernails, claws, horns, scales, and the shafts of feathers.
Keratinisation - Creation of new skin cells near the base of the epidermis that migrate upwards, producing a compact layer of dead cells on the skin surface.
Kidney - Either of a pair of abdominal organs that filter waste from the blood and help maintain proper water and salt balance.
Kidney Failure - Loss of normal function of the kidneys, which can be either a short or longterm condition.
Laceration - A cut or tear in the skin.
Lameness - An inability to walk or move normally, often, but not always, caused by pain in the limb.
Lesion - An infected or diseased patch of the skin or any abnormal change in the structure or function of a part of the body.
Lethargy - Lack of energy; apathy.
Lingual - relating to, near, or on the side towards the tongue.
Liver - A large abdominal organ with many functions, such as filtering and removing toxins from the blood, storing glycogen, and producing and secreting bile.
Locomote - To change location, i.e. to move or travel.
Long Bones - Any of several elongated bones of the limbs (for example, the femur and humerus) that have a roughly cylindrical shaft.
Longevity - Expected lifespan.
Lung - Either of two spongy, saclike respiratory organs that occupy the chest cavity and provide the blood with oxygen while removing carbon dioxide during respiration.
Maladaptive Syndrome - Unsuitably adapted or adapting poorly to a situation.
Malnourished - Affected by an improper or insufficient diet; undernourished.
Masking Behaviour - A behaviour to hide injury or weakness, especially by prey animals.
MBD - See Metabolic Bone Disease.
Metabolic - See Metabolism.
Metabolic Bone Disease - A term used to describe any disorder of the skeleton, commonly caused by improper provision of dietry calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D3 or no provision of appropriate Ultra-violet lighting.
Metabolic Disorder - Any disorder in which normal body processes are disturbed, leading to an increase or decrease in the end products of those processes.
Metabolism - Refers to the chemical reactions which occur within the body which are important for the maintenance of life.
Micro-climate - A local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area.
Micro-habitat - A very small, specialised habitat, such as a clump of grass or a space between rocks.
Monogamy - The condition of having only one mate during a breeding season or during the breeding life of a pair.
Mucous Membrane - The layer of cells that lines the tubular organs of the body, such as the digestive and respiratory tracts.
Mucus - A slippery secretion produced by glands of the mucous membranes.
Muscle - A tissue composed of fibres capable of contracting (and thus producing motion).
Musk - A secretion with a powerful odour.
Mycosis - Fungal infection.
Myiasis - Maggot infestation. Also known as strike.
Myopathy - A disorder of the muscles characterised by muscle weakness. Other symptoms of myopathy can include muscle cramps, stiffness, and spasms.
Myxoedema - A condition characterised by thickening of the skin, especially around the neck, associated with hypothyroidism.
Necrosis - Death of cells or tissues through injury or disease, especially in a localized area of the body.
Neurological - Refers to the nerves and nervous system.
Nocturnal - Active during the nighttime rather than the day.
Nutrient - Refers to the beneficial components of food which are classified as: Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins and minerals.
Nutritional Deficiency - An insufficient supply of nutrients (i.e. vitamins and minerals) in the diet resulting in malnutrition or disease.
Oedema - An excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissues.
Olfaction - The sense of smell.
Omnivore - An animal which feeds on a combination of plants and other animals or insects.
Operant Conditioning - A method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour.
Ophiophagy - Referes to the specialised feeding behaviour of animals who predominantly feed on snakes.
Opisthotonus - A severe state of hyperextension in which the head, neck and back adopt an arch position caused by spasm of the muscles along the spinal column.
Oral - Pertaining to the mouth.
Orbit - The part of the skull that encloses and protects the eye and related structures.
Organ - A structure composed of various types of tissues that has a specific function; most organs function as part of an organ system.
Organelle - A specialised part of a cell with a specific function.
Osteomalacia - A condition in adult animals in which the bones soften due to an imbalance in calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
Osteoporosis - A condition marked by loss of bone mass due to poor nutrition or age.
Ovulation - The release of an egg (ovum) from the ovary for possible fertilisation.
Oxalate - A substance found in some plants, especially spinach, rhubarb, cabbage, peas, potatoes and beet greens which form an insoluable salt with calcium interfering with its absorption by the body.
Palpation - Used as part of a physical examination, e.g. feeling for obstructions in the gut of an animal.
Pancreas - A large gland that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones, such as insulin, that regulate blood sugar levels.
Pancreatitis - Inflammation of the pancreas.
Paralysis - Partial or total loss of motor function or sensation in part of the body.
Parasite - Any living organism that lives inside, with, or close to another living creature (called a host) and uses the host as a source of food, shelter, or other requirements.
Parathyroid Glands - Glands that secrete parathyroid hormone and calcitonin.
Parathyroid Hormone - A hormone that acts with vitamin D and another hormone, calcitonin, to regulate the levels of calcium in the body.
Parietal Eye - A photoreceptive organ located on the top of the head of some animals.
Photobiosynthesis - Relating to the the biological synthesis of vitamin D3 after exposure to ultrviolet light which takes place in the malpighian layer of the skin.
Phytate - A chemical substance found in some plants, especially cereal grains, capable of forming insoluable complexeswith calcium, zinc, iron, and other nutrients, interfering with their absorption by the body.
Pineal Gland - A small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and photoperiodic (seasonal) functions.
Pinworm - Any of a group of small, parasitic nematodes that live in the intestines of vertebrates.
Piscivore - An animal which feeds chiefly on fish.
Plastron - the nearly flat part of the shell structure of a chelonian, what one would call the belly.
Pneumonia - An acute disease of the lungs.
Polydipsia - A condition characterised by excessive thirst.
Precursor - A compound which may undergo a chemical reaction that produces another compound (e.g. beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A).
Progressive - Tending to become more severe or wider in scope.
Proprioception - The sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body.
Protein - Complex molecules made of amino acids that include many substances (such as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies) necessary for the proper functioning of an organism.
Protozoa - Plural for protozoan.
Protozoan - A group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms that may be parasitic.
Quarantine - When an animal who is potentially carrying parasites or disease is isolated in sterile conditions for a period of time.
Radiation Receptor - A sensory organ that responds to light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.
Rash - A temporary outbreak on the skin's surface that is often reddish and itchy.
Receptor - The end of a nerve fibre which responds to stimuli.
Re-infestation - A reoccurrence of an infestation, as by mites.
Renal - Pertaining to the kidneys.
Reptile - Any of a class of air-breathing, usually ectothermic, vertebrate animals, generally covered in scales or plates; examples include lizards, snakes, and turtles.
Resorption - The selective uptake of substances by the bloodstream such as calcium selectively resorbed from bone during a deficiency.
Respiratory - Of, relating to, or affecting respiration (breathing).
Rickets - A nutritional disorder of young animals caused by a lack of phosphorus or vitamin D3, leading to malformation of bones and lameness.
Ringworm - A fungal skin infection affecting many animals and humans; dermatophytosis.
Rods - A type of light receptor in the eye responsible for vision in low light.
Saliva - The clear liquid containing digestive enzymes and immune cells that is secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands.
Salmonellosis - Infection with Salmonella bacteria, most often characterised by gastrointestinal signs such as diarrhea.
Scurvy - A disease caused by a lack of vitamin C, characterised by spongy bleeding gums, bleeding beneath the skin and spontaneous rupturing of the skin.
Scute - An external bony or horny plate or scale covering the skin of some reptiles, such as the shell of a turtle.
Septicaemia - Illness resulting from the persistent presence of microorganisms or their toxins in the bloodstream. Also called blood poisoning or sepsis.
Septicaemic Cutaneous Ulcerative Disease (SCUD) - A bacterial disease in turtles in which the scales are pitted.
Shock - A condition of sudden failure of the circulatory system, brought on by excessive blood loss, severe infection, or nervous system dysfunction, among other causes.
Sloughing - See Ecdysis.
Soft Tissue - Any of the body tissues other than bone and cartilage.
Solitary - Living habitually alone.
Somatic - Pertaining to the body, usually to the skeleton, muscles, and skin but not the viscera.
Spasm - A sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles.
Species - A subdivision of a basic biological group, the genus, containing individuals that resemble one another and that may interbreed.
Steatitis - See Yellow Fat Disease
Stomatitis - Inflammation of the lining of the tissue structures in the mouth.
Subcutaneous - Located just beneath the skin.
Substrate - The material used to cover the bottom of on animals enclosure. Examples include newspaper, sand, peat moss, potting soil, wood shavings, or cypress mulch.
Supplement - A preparation intended to enrich the diet and provide nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, fibre, fatty acids or amino acids, that may be missing or may not be consumed in sufficient quantities in an animals diet.
Suppression - The reduction or stoppage of a normal bodily function.
Susceptibility - The likelihood of being affected or infected; vulnerability.
Syndrome - A group of signs that occur together and signal a particular abnormal condition.
Temperature Gradient - A change in temperatures from a heat source to a cooler area i.e. from the side of an enclosure where a heat source is provided to the side where no additional heating is provided.
Tendon - An inelastic band of tough fibrous connective tissue attaching a muscle to a bone or other part.
Terrestrial - A ground dwelling animal.
Tetrapod - Meaning "four feet". A group of vertebrates that includes amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
Thermal Gradient - See Temperature Gradient.
Thermogenesis - The process of heat production in organisms.
Thermoregulation - the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries.
Thermostat - A device for regulating the temperature of an environment.
Thigmotherm - An animal which absorbs heat from its surrounding environment, i.e. directly from the ground.
Thyroid Gland - An endocrine organ in the base of the neck that regulates metabolism.
Torpor - A state of deep unconsciousness and lowered physiological activity characterized by reduced metabolism, heart rate, respiration, and body temperature that occurs in varying degrees, usually brought on as a result of environmental conditions such as low temperature.
Torticollis - A condition in which the neck is twisted and head inclined to one side, caused by spasmodic contractions of the muscles in the neck.
Toxicity - The degree to which a substance (such as a nutrient) can harm an animal.
Transmission - The passing of an infection from one individual to another.
Tumour - An abnormal, usually well defined, mass of tissue within an animal; can be either malignant (cancerous) or benign (non-cancerous).
Ulcer - A sore of the skin or of a mucous membrane (for instance, the mouth or stomach lining) characterized by erosion and loss of surface tissue.
Ultraviolet Radiation (UV) - Light energy radiating from the sun. UVB is essential for the metabolism of vitamin D3 in some reptile species.
Urate - A salt formed from uric acid. See Uric Acid.
Uric Acid - A weak acid present in the urine, which can lead to gout or other disorders in reptiles if it builds up to high levels.
UTH - Under-tank Heater; A heating device used to produce a temperature gradient within an artificial environment, such as a vivarium.
Vascularisation - Growth of blood vessels into a tissue with the result that the oxygen and nutrition supply is improved.
Vector - any agent (person, animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease e.g. "mosquitos are vectors of malaria and yellow fever".
Vent - An external horizontal slit at the posterior of certain animals. See Cloaca.
Virus - A tiny infectious agent consisting of a genetic material in a protein coat, which relies on host cells to reproduce.
Visceral - Relating to or affecting one or more of the soft internal organs of the body, especially those within the abdominal cavity.
Visceral Gout - An inflammatory build-up of uric acid metabolites in the internal organs of reptiles, leading to pain and discomfort.
Vitamin - Any of a group of compounds that are essential for proper body function and growth.
Vomeronasal Organ - An olfactory organ used in chemoreception.
Vomit - To expel the contents of the stomach; to throw up.
Viviparous - Animals which give birth to live young rather than producing eggs.
WC - Wild Caught: An animal which is directly captured from the wild.
Worms - Soft-bodied organisms, many of which are parasitic and infect animals and/or humans.
Writhing - To cause to twist or squirm, as in pain.
Xerophthalmia - Abnormal dryness of the eyes caused by a lack of tears attributed to a lack of vitamin A.
Yellow Fat Disease - Inflammation of fatty tissue; caused by vitamin E deficiency.
Zoonosis - A disease that can be passed from animals to people and vice versa.
© 2014 Cat Read